Crossing the Rubicon. January 10, 49 BC.

During the Roman Republic, the river Rubicon marked the boundary between the Roman province of Cisalpine Gaul to the north-west and Italy proper (controlled directly by Rome and its allies) to the south. Exercising imperium when forbidden by the law was a capital offence. Furthermore, obeying the commands of a general who did not legally possess imperium was a capital offence. If a general entered Italy whilst exercising command of an army, both the general and his soldiers became outlaws and were automatically condemned to death. Generals were thus obliged to disband their armies before entering Italy. In 49 BC, perhaps on January 10, Julius Caesar led a single legion, south over the Rubicon from Cisalpine Gaul to Italy to make his way to Rome. In doing so, he deliberately broke the law o...

End of the Siege and Battle of Alesia. 5 October, 52 BC.

The Siege and Battle of Alesia meant the end of the Gallic Wars, and took place from September to October 52 BC. It befell around the Gallic fortified settlement of Alesia, “capital” of the Mandubii tribe. It confronted the Roman army of Julius Caesar against an alliance of Gallic tribes, united under the leadership of Vercingetorix of the Averni. In history, it is considered one of Caesar´s most important military victories, as well as a classic example of siege warfare. This battle marked the end of the Gallic independence of France and Belgium. The day after the battle, Caesar ordered the Gauls to surrender their weapons and deliver their chieftains. The chieftains were brought before him and Vercingetorix was surrendered. For Caesar, Alesia was an enormous personal success, both milita...

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