Clement VII

The Emperor´s Mausoleum. July 10, 138 AD.

Hadrian died in the year 138 on the 10th of July, in his villa at Baiae at the age of 62. Dio Cassius and the Historia Augusta record details of his failing health. He had reigned for 21 years, the longest since Tiberius, and the fourth longest in the Principate, after Augustus, Hadrian’s successor Antoninus Pius, and Tiberius. He was buried first at Puteoli, near Baiae, on an estate that had once belonged to Cicero. Soon after, his remains were transferred to Rome and buried in the Gardens of Domitia, close by the almost-complete mausoleum. Upon completion of the Tomb of Hadrian in Rome in 139 by his successor Antoninus Pius, his body was cremated, and his ashes were placed there together with those of his wife Vibia Sabina and his first adopted son, Lucius Aelius, who also died in ...

The Western/Papal Schism and the End of Papal States – September 20, 1378 AD and September 20, 1870 AD

Robert of Geneva was the son of Amadeus III, Count of Geneva. He was born in 1342 AD in Chateau d’Annecy, in the county of Savoy, then part of the Holy Roman Empire. In 1361, he became the Bishop of Thérouanne; the Archbishop of Cambrai in 1368 and a cardinal in 1371. From 1376-1378, he was serving as papal legate in Upper Italy and during that time, he was called upon in 1377 to suppress a rebellion in the Papal States. He personally led forces against the city of Cesena in Forlì, which was resisting being annexed into the Patrimony of Peter, during the War of the Eight Saints (1375-1378). The Papal States were territories in Italy under the direct sovereignty of the Pope, from the 700s-1870, ending when the unified Kingdom of Italy laid siege to the city of Rome and Pope Pius XI. On Sept...

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