Jovian Dies – February 17, 364 AD

The Roman Emperor, Julian II, died in June of 363, from wounds received in battle against King Shapur II and the Sassanians. After his death, the soldiers offered to elevate the praetorian prefect, Saturninus Secundus Salutius to the throne, but he declined based on his advanced age. The next was Flavius Jovianus, son of general Varronianus. This choice was based on politics and culture, since the armies of the east and west had many disagreements and was finding it difficult to find a candidate that would be suitable to both sides. Deep into enemy territory, and among a Roman army who was beginning to starve, Jovian accepted the position, and signed a very unfavorable peace agreement with Shapur. This agreement cost the empire all territory east of the Tigris, parts of Armenia, and the ci...

Jovian Elevated – October 22, 363 AD

Upon the death of Julian II, in battle near Phrygia against the Persians around June 26, 363, the position of ruling the Roman Empire suddenly became available. The armies offered to elevate Saturninus Secundus Salutius, a praetorian prefect, but he declined because of his age. Next in line was Flavius Jovianus, the militarily accomplished son of General Varronianus. Jovian accepted and shortly thereafter signed an unfavorable treaty of peace with the Sassanian King, Shapur II, to get the beleaguered and starving Roman army back into friendly territory. This retreat cost the Romans all of their territory east of the Tigris River, part of Armenia, and the cities of Nisibis and Singara in Mesopotamia – all territories won under Septimius Severus and Galerius. Julian II is often referred to a...

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