Papal Bull

Romanus Pontifex and the Age of Imperialism. January 8, 1455.

From the point of view of European History, the coast of Guinea has always been mainly associated to slavery. In fact, one of the names used commonly for this region is “The Slaves Coast”. When Portuguese arrived at the Atlantic coast of Africa around 1430, they were mainly interested in gold. Since Mansa Musa´s, king of the Empire of Mali, hajj to Mecca in 1325 with 500 slaves and 100 camels, each of them loaded with gold, the region was famous for its richness. The commerce of Subsaharan Africa had been until then controlled by the Islamic Empire that extended along the north of Africa. The commercial routes of the Muslims crossed the Sahara Desert. These routes had existed for centuries and the main goods were salt, textiles, fish, grain and slaves. When the Portuguese extended their in...

Martin Luther Excommunicated – December 10, 1520 AD

Martin Luther was originally an Augustinian friar, a Catholic religious order. As time went on, he moved away from some of the core Catholic teachings, insisting that the Bible was the only source of knowledge from God. He believed one could not purchase or earn through good deeds his way to salvation – it could only be attained through the acceptance of the sacrifice of Jesus Christ. His teachings put him at odds with the Roman Catholic Church and the pope, writing his Ninety-Five Theses in 1517, when confronting the Dominican friar, Johann Tetzel. Tetzel was a Grand Inquisitor of Heresy to Poland and was in the practice of selling indulgences for money in exchange for freedom from God’s punishment of sin. This is a category of  martin luther coin. From 1510-1520, Luther preached about th...

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