King Francis I of France

Sacco di Roma. May 6, 1527.

The growing power of Holy Roman Emperor Charles V alarmed Pope Clement VII, who perceived Charles as attempting to dominate the Catholic Church and Italy. In effort to free both from Imperial domination, Clement VII formed an alliance with Charles V’s arch-enemy, King Francis I of France, which came to be known as the League of Cognac (including France, Milan, Venice, Florence and the Papacy). The imperial troops were 14,000 Germans, 6,000 Spanish, and an uncertain number of Italian infantry. The troops defending Rome were not at all numerous, consisting of 5,000 militiamen led by Renzo da Ceri and 189 Papal Swiss Guard. The city’s fortifications included the massive walls, and it possessed a good artillery force, which the Imperial army lacked. Charles III, Duke of Bourbon nee...

Henry VIII of England and Anne of Cleves – July 9, 1540 AD

Henry Tudor was born on June 28, 1491, the third child and second son of King Henry VII of England and Elizabeth of York. His childhood was a steady stream of appointments and titles. Before his third birthday in 1493, he was appointed Constable of Dover Castle and Lord Warden of the Cinque Ports. Within the next year, he was appointed Earl Marshal of England and Lord Lieutenant of Ireland and inducted to the Order of the Bath. The day after being in the Order, he was made Duke of York. About a month later, he was made Warden of the Scottish Marshes. In 1495, he was appointed to the Order of the Garter. Despite all of education and titles, his older brother, Arthur, Prince of Wales, was expected to be crowned King of England. In 1502, Arthur died suddenly of “English sweating sickness”, le...

Even Old New York Was Once New Amsterdam – September 5, 1664 AD

The Italian explorer, Giovanni da Verrazzano, discovered a part of the new world in 1524 AD, and called it New Angoulême, in honor of his patron, King Francis I of France. The Dutch arrived to the area in 1609, on the Halve Maen, captained by Henry Hudson. Hudson was in service of the Dutch Republic, through Maurice of Nassau, Prince of Orange. Although the emissary of Maurice, Hudson was covertly trying to find the Northwest Passage for the Dutch East India Trading Company (also known as VOC). He traversed what he named the Mauritius River, modern day Hudson River. When he returned, he brought news of the abundance of beaver in the area, whose pelts were prized in Europe because they could be felted and made waterproof. Beaver also was used to make castoreum, used in medicine and perfume....

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