Judaea

King Cyrus and the Temple of Jerusalem. October 29, 538 BC.

Cyrus the Great figures in the Hebrew Bible as the patron and deliverer of the Jews. He is mentioned 23 times by name and alluded to several times more. According to the Bible, Cyrus the Great, king of Persia, was the monarch under whom the Babylonian captivity ended. In the first year of his reign he was prompted by God to decree that the Temple in Jerusalem should be rebuilt and that such Jews as cared to might return to their land for this purpose. Moreover, he showed his interest in the project by sending back with them the sacred vessels which had been taken from the First Temple and a considerable sum of money with which to buy building materials. In 538 BC, there was a revolt in Southern Babylonia, while the army of Cyrus entered the country from the north. In June the Babylonian ar...

The Second Battle of Bedriacum. October 24, 69 AD.

News of the defeat of Otho was brought to Brixellum, many of Otho’s troops urged him to fight on, pointing out that more troops were on the way, but the emperor chose suicide rather than cause more deaths. Vitellius continued his march on Rome, where he made a triumphal entry and was recognized as emperor by the Senate. Meanwhile, the legions stationed in the Middle East provinces of Judaea and Syria had acclaimed Vespasian as emperor. Vespasian had been given a special command in Iudaea by Nero in 67 with the task of putting down the Great Jewish Revolt. He gained the support of the governor of Syria, Gaius Licinius Mucianus and a strong force drawn from the Judaean and Syrian legions marched on Rome under the command of Mucianus. Before the eastern legions could reach Rome, the Dan...

Hadrian Dies at Baiae – July 10, 138 AD

Trajan expanded the borders of the Roman Empire to its greatest extent and was hoping his adopted successor, Hadrian, would continue to conquer even more territory. Hadrian was an experienced soldier, having campaigned with Trajan against the Parthians as a legate in early 117. History doesn’t describe Hadrian as having done anything outstanding during the campaign, however, Trajan did appoint him as governor of Syria when the current governor had to vacate to deal with problems in Dacia. During this time, Trajan was of ill health and getting worse, so he returned to Rome and left Hadrian in the East to keep matters under control. This is a great category in Roman Coins. After Trajan died on August 8, 117, Hadrian was endorsed by the Senate on August 9 as the next Roman emperor. Although n...

Titus Begins Sole Reign – June 23, 79 AD

During the reign of Claudius (41-54 AD), Vespasian was held in high esteem, allowing his son, Titus to be raised in the company of the royal court. Titus was taught along side Britannicus, Claudius’s son. They became close friends and Titus was at the dinner party at which Britannicus was fatally poisoned by Nero in 55. It is said Titus even drank some of the poison and became very ill, but recovered. Nero continued to rule, Vespasian had retired in 51 and Titus was sent to Germania. From c.57-59, Titus was a military tribune in Germania, arriving in Britannia c.60 with reinforcements after the revolt of Boadicea. Titus married twice, the first to Arrecina Tertulla, the daughter of one of Caligula’s praetorian prefects, when he returned to Rome in c.63. The were married until Tertulla’s de...

Eagles Recovered – May 26, 17 AD

Publius Quinctilius Varus, born in 46 BC, came from a noble family and became a personal friend to both Marcus Vipsanius Agrippa and Roman emperor Augustus. He married Vipsania Marcella Agrippina, great-niece of Augustus and daughter of Marcus Agrippa. After she died, he married Claudia Pulchra, grand-niece of Augustus through Octavia the Younger. Varus was fast-tracked on his political career and finished his cursus honorem early when he was elected consul with Tiberius in 13 BC. He gave the eulogy at Marcus Agrippa’s funeral in 12 BC. In 8/7 BC, he was appointed governor of Africa and in 7/6 BC, moved on to governor of Syria with four legions at his command. It was here Varus was known for his harsh rule and high taxes. A revolt in Judaea after the death of King Herod the Great in 4 BC w...

The Flavian Dynasty – July 1, 69 AD

In 66 AD, a revolt was occurring in the Roman province of Judaea. Jews were rebelling and the governor of the province was killed in the fighting. Cestius Gallus, governor of Syria arrived in September with Legio XII Fulminata to restore order. He was able to take back parts of Judaea, but failed to take the Temple Mount after a nine-day siege and fell back to the coast. He was ambushed on the way, and of the 30,000 troops at his disposal when he arrived, escaped with heavy losses and died in Syria in 67, leaving Judaea lost as a Roman province. Nero replaced Gallus after his death with Gaius Licinius Mucianus as governor of Syria, and charged Titus Flavius Vespasianus, who was stationed in the area of Judaea with crushing the rebellion. Vespasian arrived in 68 AD with two legions, eight s...

Easter Sunday

Pontius Pilate was the fifth prefect of Judaea, and governed during the reign of Roman emperor, Tiberius. The four Christian Gospels all agree Pilate did not want to have Jesus Christ executed, but relented to the crowds who demanded it. The Gospels tell: Matthew: Pilate symbolically washes his hands to show he didn’t want to be held responsible for the execution of Jesus and was only doing what was demanded of him. Mark: Jesus was innocent of plotting against the Roman Empire and Pilate agreed and didn’t want to condemn him. Luke: Not only did Pilate find Jesus innocent of plotting against the Empire, but Herod Antipas of Galilee agreed. John: Quotes Pilate as saying “I find no guilt in Him [Jesus]” and asks the Jews if he should be freed. Matthew 22:15-22            Paying the Imperial T...

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