The Fifth Crusade. May 27, 1217.

The Fifth Crusade (1217-1221) consisted of a series of military actions initiated by Western Europe in order to recover Jerusalem and the rest of the Holy Land, by first trying to conquer Cairo under the control of the Ayyubids. Pope Innocent III and his successor, Honorius III, summoned the crusaders, led by the forces of Andrew II of Hungary and Duke Leopold VI of Austria. They tried to attack Jerusalem, but ultimately left the city in Muslim hands. In 1218 two armies, one led by Oliver of Cologne from Germany, and another by William I of Holland, composed of Flemish, Dutch and Frisian soldiers, joined the Crusade. They allied forces with the Seljuk Sultanate of Rum in order to attack Damietta (Egypt). The Seljuks launched an attack on the Ayyubids in Syria, trying to free the crusaders ...

Maurice of Nassau – November 1, 1582 AD

Upon the death in 1618 of his eldest half-brother, Philip William, Prince of Orange, Maurice of Nassau, the son of William of Orange, he became the new sovereign Prince of Orange. However, well before that event, Maurice was already well-versed in military and government affairs. He became the governor of Holland, Zeeland and Utrecht on November 1, 1582. This is a category of  silver coins. Maurice was born to William the Silent and Princess Anna of Saxony in 1567. He was named after his maternal grandfather, the Elector Maurice of Saxony, who was an accomplished general. His father was murdered in 1584 and he took over as the “stadtholder” or steward of the state of Holland and Zeeland. William of Orange was the leader of the successful Dutch Revolt against the Spanish Empire. In 1587, Ma...

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