Charles V

February 12, 1502. The Muslim Conversion or Expulsion.

Unlike the Muslims of Granada, who were under Muslim rule until 1492, Muslims in the rest of Castile had lived under Christian rule for generations. Following the conversions in Granada, Isabella decided to impose a conversion-or-expulsion decree against the Muslims. Castile outlawed Islam in a legislation dated July 1501 in Granada, but it was not immediately made public. The proclamation took place on February 12, 1502, in Seville, and then locally in other towns. The edict affected “all kingdoms and lordships of Castile and Leon“. According to the edict, all Muslim males aged 14 or more, or females aged 12 or more, should convert or leave Castile by the end of April 1502. The edict justified the decision by saying that after the successful conversion of Granada, allowing Mus...

The Order of the Golden Fleece. January 10, 1430.

The Order of the Golden Fleece (Spanish: Orden del Toisón de Oro, German: Orden vom Goldenen Vlies) is a Roman Catholic order of chivalry founded in Bruges by the Burgundian duke Philip the Good in 1430, to celebrate his marriage to the Portuguese princess Isabella. Today, two branches of the Order exist, namely the Spanish and the Austrian Fleece; the current grand masters are Felipe VI, King of Spain, and Karl von Habsburg, grandson of Emperor Charles I of Austria, respectively. Having had only 1,200 recipients ever since its establishment, the Spanish Order of the Golden Fleece has been referred to as the most prestigious and exclusive order of chivalry in the world, both historically and contemporaneously. Unlike any other distinction, the Golden Fleece is only granted for life, meanin...

Hernán Cortés and Moctezuma. November 8, 1519.

Upon entering the city of Tenochtitlan, on November 8, 1519, the meeting between Moctezuma and Hernán Cortés took place, with Doña Marina (La Malinche) as translator. Moctezuma II thought Spaniards had been sent by the god that would come from the East (Quetzalcóatl) and so, he was a magnificent host. He even presented Cortés, among other things, with the Headpiece of God Quetzalcóatl, also known as the Moctezuma Crest, wich was sent among other gifts, to the Imperial Spanish Court of Charles V. Moctezuma lodged the Spanish soldiers in the temple of his ancestor Axayácatl (Moctezuma´s father), and they spent the following days visiting palaces and temples as well as the city of Tlatelolco. Upon the request of Cortés of building a catholic chapel, Moctezuma allowed them to do so, inside the...

King Henry VIII, head of the Anglican Church. November 3, 1534.

The First Act of Supremacy was enacted on November 3 1534 in the English Parliament during Henry VIII reign. In this act, the king was proclaimed “the only supreme head on Earth of the Church of England” and that the English crown shall enjoy “all honours, dignities, preeminences, jurisdictions, privileges, authorities, immunities, profits, and commodities to the said dignity.” The Act made the English Reformation official, though it had been building up since 1527, and it asserted the final independence of the Ecclesia Anglicana. The result of this act was a deep crisis of the relationships between England and Rome. Henry VIII´s desire of obtaining the annulment of his marriage with Catharine of Aragon, which had been repeatedly denied by Pope Clement VII (who was under ...

Martin Luther Excommunicated – December 10, 1520 AD

Martin Luther was originally an Augustinian friar, a Catholic religious order. As time went on, he moved away from some of the core Catholic teachings, insisting that the Bible was the only source of knowledge from God. He believed one could not purchase or earn through good deeds his way to salvation – it could only be attained through the acceptance of the sacrifice of Jesus Christ. His teachings put him at odds with the Roman Catholic Church and the pope, writing his Ninety-Five Theses in 1517, when confronting the Dominican friar, Johann Tetzel. Tetzel was a Grand Inquisitor of Heresy to Poland and was in the practice of selling indulgences for money in exchange for freedom from God’s punishment of sin. This is a category of  martin luther coin. From 1510-1520, Luther preached about th...

Pope Clement VII Escapes – December 6, 1527 AD

When Giulio di Giuliano de’ Medici became Pope Clement VII on November 19, 1523, the Italian War had already been raging for two years. The election of Charles V as Holy Roman Emperor and the allying of Pope Leo X with Charles against Martin Luther provoked the war of the Holy Roman Empire, Henry VIII of England and the Papal States against King Francis I of France and the Republic of Venice. Clement sent the Archbishop of Capua to the kings of France, England and Spain to try to end the war. The mission failed and Francis invaded Milan. In return, Clement joined with the other Italian princes, Republic of Venice and France against the Imperial and Spanish forces. In doing so, Parma and Piacenza became Papal States, the Medici rule over Florence and free passage of the French troops ...

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