Author: Marisa Ollero

Lincoln for President. November 6,1860.

On November 6, 1860, Lincoln was elected the 16th president of the United States, beating Douglas, Breckinridge, and Bell. He was the first president from the Republican Party. His victory was entirely due to the strength of his support in the North and West; no ballots were cast for him in 10 of the 15 Southern slave states, and he won only two of 996 counties in all the Southern states. As Linco...

The Battle of the Milvian Brigde. October 28, 312 AD.

The Battle of the Milvian Bridge took place between the Roman Emperors Constantine I and Maxentius on October 28, 312. It takes its name from the Milvian Bridge, an important route over the Tiber river. Constantine won the battle and started on the path that led him to end the Tetrarchy and become the sole ruler of the Roman Empire. Maxentius drowned in the Tiber during the battle; his body was la...

King Henry VIII, head of the Anglican Church. November 3, 1534.

The First Act of Supremacy was enacted on November 3 1534 in the English Parliament during Henry VIII reign. In this act, the king was proclaimed “the only supreme head on Earth of the Church of England” and that the English crown shall enjoy “all honours, dignities, preeminences, jurisdictions, privileges, authorities, immunities, profits, and commodities to the said dignity.” T...

The Peace of Westphalia. October 24, 1648.

  The Peace of Westphalia was a series of peace treaties signed between May and October 1648 in the Westphalian cities of Osnabrück and Münster, ending the European wars of religion. These treaties ended the Thirty Years’ War (1618–1648) in the Holy Roman Empire, between the Habsburgs and their Catholic allies and the Protestant (Sweden, Denmark, Dutch, Holy Roman Principalities) and Ca...

Trajan, Nerva´s successor. October 28,97 AD.

In September 96, Emperor Domitian was succeeded by Marcus Cocceius Nerva. After a brief and turbulent year in power, culminating in a revolt by members of the Praetorian Guard, Nerva was compelled to adopt the more popular Trajan as his heir and successor. Since Nerva was really unpopular with the army and had recently been forced to execute Domitian´s killers by his Praetorian Prefect, he felt th...

The regicides of Charles I. October 17, 1660.

After the trial of Charles I in January 1649, 59 judges signed his death warrant, who, along with other court officials and several associates were subject to punishment after the restoration of the monarchy in 1660 with the coronation of Charles II. With him, the Parliament signed the Indemnity and Oblivion Act, granting amnesty to those guilty of crimes committed during the Civil War that follow...

The Battle of Zama. October 19, 202 BC.

The Battle of Zama meant the end of the 17 years long Second Punic War. An army led by Publius Cornelius Scipio Africanus, supported by Masinissa, the Numidian leader, defeated a force greater in numbers and that counted with eighty war elephants, led by commander Hannibal. In Hannibal´s army there were a great number of conscripts, and it had been recently hampered by the vaunted Numidian cavalry...

Columbus encounters the Americas. October 12,1492

In 1492, a Spanish maritime expedition led by Cristopher Columbus parted in search of a new route to get to Asia. The expedition finally encountered the Americas, a continent that was previously unknown in Europe, and was the inception of the colonization of the Americas. This event is often cited as the beginning of the Modern Era. Portugal had been up until the late 15th century the main Europea...

End of the Siege and Battle of Alesia. 5 October, 52 BC.

The Siege and Battle of Alesia meant the end of the Gallic Wars, and took place from September to October 52 BC. It befell around the Gallic fortified settlement of Alesia, “capital” of the Mandubii tribe. It confronted the Roman army of Julius Caesar against an alliance of Gallic tribes, united under the leadership of Vercingetorix of the Averni. In history, it is considered one of Caesar´s most ...

Heraclius, emperor. October 4, 610.

In 608, Heraclius the Elder, Heraclius´ father, renounced his loyalty to the Emperor Phocas. The rebels even issued coins showing both Heraclii dressed as consuls, though neither of them had claimed the imperial title. Phocas responded with executions, among them of the ex-Empress Constantina and her three daughters. Heraclius’ younger cousin Nicetas launched a successful overland invasion o...

The Battle of Poitiers. September 19, 1356.

  The Battle of Poitiers was one of the most important victories of the English against the French during the Hundred Years´ War. It took place on 19 September 1356 near Poitiers in Aquitaine (southern France). An army of English, Welsh, Breton and Gascon troops, led by Edward, the Black Prince defeated a larger French army led by King Jean II of France, The Good. In result of the defeat, the...

The Siege of Jerusalem. September 20, 1187.

The Siege of Jerusalem took place from September 20th  to October 2nd 1187, when Balian of Ibelin surrendered the city, resulting the absolute conquer of the Kingdom of Jerusalem by Saladin. This conquer was the excuse to launch the Third Crusade in 1189. After days of Muslim attacks with hundreds of casualties, Saladin decided to move his camp towards the Mount of Olives, where Jerusalem´s wall w...

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